Roofing materials – what choices do you have? Part 2

Let’s have a look at the typical products available in the Montreal area.

Asphalt shingles in all their various forms, constitute anywhere from 50% to 95% of the installed roofs (for sloped residential roofs) with the proportion depending on the area of the city or region.  They are the cheapest form of roofing, are readily available from any number of sources, and are the easiest to install.  They also are not waterproof, can easily blow off (if not properly installed), and usually last from 10-15 years.  The exact kind of weakness they show depend on the type and brand of shingle, but in general, even with good installation practice and proper preparation, they usually don’t last much beyond 18 years.

Tar and gravel roofs are quite common in certain areas of the city, and are found on flat and lower sloped (2:12 to 3:12) roofs.  They were very inexpensive to install, and generally last 20-30 years.  However, given that they are “built-up roofing” made from successive layers of tar paper embedded in roofing tar, they depend on good installation practice both in the laying down of the basic material, and in the flashing details at the roof perimeter and any penetrations.  At this time, the number of companies that continue to do this work is much less than before, and they tend to be large commercial outfits.

 Membrane roofs are now seen more and more, replacing the tar and gravel coverings on low-slope roofs.  These membranes are of different construction and use different materials, but the most common is a form of modified asphalt sheet (usually two-ply), that is installed in overlapping layers.  There are different installation methods, with some being glued down, and others requiring open flames to melt and seal the layers.  The latter is called “torch-on” membrane, and should be installed only by insured craftsmen.  Durability and effectiveness depends very much on the installation skill and detailing, but a well-installed membrane roof should last about 20-25 years.

 Metal roofs were very common in our region before asphalt shingles became the common material, partly because of our snow loads – they allowed the snow to slide off and reduce the load on the roof.  Since those times, metal roofs evolved in a dramatic fashion, creating products such as standing seam roofs, steel, aluminum and copper shingles, various profiles of metal panels that resemble clay tile, or wood shake, or architectural asphalt shingles.  The roofs range from very cheap (generally thin screw-through panels) to very expensive (hand-made copper or stainless steel coverings).  Most metal roofs come with 50-year (give or take) product warranties, and if properly installed, can be expected to last over 100 years.  On the other hand, the choice of which metal product is most appropriate for a given situation is something that many homeowners just don’t have the knowledge to make, and are very susceptible to the salesperson pitch.  Proper installation also plays a very important role in the actual longevity of the products, and this is also an area where most people just don’t have the experience to ask the right questions.

Wood or cedar shingles used to be very common roofing materials, but with the disappearance of first-growth cedar, the prices have skyrocketed, and these products are available usually only on high-end homes.  Being a natural product, they have a unique appearance, but also require a certain amount of maintenance and care to reach their potential life.  They have to be installed in a manner that allows them to shed water and to drain well, so that there is little chance of trapped water promoting rot.  Installing these is a very skilled trade, and there are only a few contractors in our region that do a proper job.

Slate is a relatively common material for roofing, especially in areas like Westmount and Outremont.  It is a beautiful, historic covering, and properly installed will last well over 100 years.  However, both the material, and the skilled labour needed to install these is quite expensive, so these are now found only on high-end homes that can handle the weight, and whose homeowners can afford to pay for the maintenance.

Clay tile (and its cousin, concrete tile), is a very common material in many parts of the world, and is found also in our region.  However, in addition to the weight, our frequent freeze-thaw cycles wreak havoc on any tile that has a crack forming on it.  In addition, most homes are not designed to hold up the amount of static weight that such a roof will represent.  Maintenance is also an issue, since these are relatively fragile, and should not be walked on.  We find that homeowners often choose to replace these with metal products that have a similar appearance, without the fragility of true clay.

There are newer materials coming onto the market, including fake slate made from recycled plastic and rubber, and fiberglass panels.  Time will tell whether their initial attractiveness will last or whether the UV exposure and temperature extremes will cause damage.  Earlier versions of these products came onto the market and were withdrawn after frequent failure.  Maybe the new generation will finally get the mix right.

One important consideration in choosing a roofing material, is the life-cycle cost.  What IS the actual duration of the “trouble-free” period for each type of material (and the method of installation)?  Since failure usually starts at the weakest part of the system, it is important to know what that part is, and to do the required maintenance so that part can last as long as the rest of the roof system.

An example of the type of problems that can occur is an asphalt shingle installation over an OSB (Exposure Type 1) deck.  Even when properly installed, some shingles will start letting in water (via the nail holes) in as little as eight years.  Once that water starts entering the OSB decking, the glue starts to deteriorate, and the OSB panel starts losing strength and integrity.  The shingles may still look good on surface inspection, but the seepage pattern visible from the attic will tell otherwise.

A very common waterproofing technique is to use caulking in “waterproofing” various roof joints and penetrations.  The more common caulking formulations lose their resiliency and adhesion in as little as five years, even when properly installed.  Is it a coincidence that most installation warranties (on asphalt shingles) only last 5 years?  The way around this is to build the roof system so that the caulking is more or less cosmetic, with the real waterproofing happening behind/below the caulking.  Ah, but THAT takes more expensive materials, and more labour to install, and besides, it can’t be seen, so why bother?  This detail work is the difference between a waterproofing joint that will last 5 years (more or less) compared to a waterproofed joint that will last 20-30 years or more.

Therefore, when looking at the life-cycle cost, it is important to consider both the material AND the way the product is installed.  Certain materials (like asphalt shingles) are more susceptible to other deficiencies in the roofing system, like improper insulation and/or ventilation.  In addition to “pure” life-cycle costs of the roofing system only, you also need to consider the costs associated with the risks of failure.  For example, if the roofing system fails gradually over time, and there is persistent low-level leakage into the roof decking, then this may be a minor issue if the decking is solid wood, but may be a major issue if the decking is OSB( exposure Type 1).  If the house in question also has ice damming issues (due to insufficient insulation and ventilation), then it is almost guaranteed that there will be serious roofing issues and damage UNLESS the proper preparation and waterproofing was done.

Therefore, in order to make an intelligent purchasing decision when choosing among the various roofing materials available, it is important to also understand the current weakness of YOUR specific roof to know what preparation, waterproofing, and additional work such as ventilation and insulation improvement is needed in order to achieve the promise of what the roofing system could deliver.  Since changing a roof is a major expense for most people, shouldn’t you know that you’re getting the best product and installation for the money you will need to invest?

If you’re not sure about the best fit for your situation, contact me.  We’ll examine your current situation,  determine which factors we need to take into account, and review the options you have.  Now you will be in the best position of knowing what needs to be done and how it should be done, without worrying about whether short-cuts have been taken.  No point in wasting your hard-earned money, and putting your most important investment at risk!

(c) 2014 Paul Grizenko

Roofing materials – what choices do you have? Part 1

There are plenty of marketing pieces on the web and elsewhere touting this material or that material as the “Best” or the “Most-Cost-Effective”, or the “Best Performer”.  This post isn’t going to be one of them.  Rather, I’ll direct your attention to the gap between the consumer expectations (based on marketing claims), and the actual performance.  This isn’t to say that the manufacturers are lying through their teeth, but more that they are trying to encourage you to associate certain properties with their product that may not be justified by test results.

The first thing to recognize, is that each material has both strengths and weaknesses.  There is a set of conditions for which the product is superbly suited.  There is another set of conditions under which its performance will be entirely unsatisfactory.  Roofing materials are part of the building envelope, and as such, are subject to the rules (the building code) which govern the minimum standards for construction.  Certain materials have specific tests that define certain properties or performance criteria of these materials, and the building codes usually reference the minimum performance that under those tests is acceptable.

Manufacturers develop installation instructions and guidelines to ensure that their products will not be placed in situations where their weaknesses are exposed.  Therefore, if the product is installed in conformance with the guidelines, then its behaviour should be in line with the manufacturer’s claims.  This puts the emphasis on proper installation – where it is assumed that the installer knows the weaknesses of a product, and if the product is installed in a situation where the weaknesses will show up, to provide the appropriate additional protection to minimize the weaknesses.

A common example of this is the use of asphalt shingles on roofs where ice-dams can form.  Asphalt shingles are designed to be a cheap, reasonably-long-lasting cover for roofs, and work by shedding water.  To work well, they have to be installed on a slope that is sufficiently pitched to allow the water to run off freely, to be secured appropriately, and to have enough roof heat to allow the tar strips to bond the top and bottom layers of the shingles together.  They are NOT designed to be waterproof.  If a roofer installs them on a roof where he knows that there is a history, or likely possibility of ice damming, he knows he needs to install additional waterproofing (in the form of an ice-and-water shield membrane) to compensate for the fact that the shingles will let water in.  Depending on the severity of the underlying issue, additional measures may also need to be taken to ensure that the weakness of asphalt shingles in this situation do not lead to an immediate problem.

Most homeowners are obviously not aware of the subtleties of proper installation, the nuances of “appropriate use”, and the different ways things can fail.  Since their source of information is usually the glossy brochures of the manufacturer, their perception of what they are buying, may be quite different from the reality.  Let me illustrate.

Slide 1 - Benefits

Above is a diagram illustrating a collection of benefits that a particular product can give.

Slide 2 - Benefits and weaknesses

Real-world products also have weaknesses of various kinds.  Often the “Weakness” is visible only under certain situations.  An example of this would be the ability of a smooth metal roof to shed snow.  If you WANT the snow off your roof, then this is a benefit.  If, on the other hand, the falling snow can damage property or cause injury to people, then this is a weakness.

Slide 3 - Benefits according to Marketers

Marketers present their products to be as attractive as possible, and try to associate all kinds of feelings and projected desires so that consumers are moved to buy the product.  There is a lot of subliminal messaging going on, both through the text and the imagery used, to create a favourable impression of the product.  It’s not to say that the marketers are lying or misrepresenting their products – but they often set up the ad so that we infer more than they actually say or claim.  Examples of this would be “green” claims, or images with happy families, or beautiful couples in front of something unrelated.  Another method is to use references to warranties to imply a durability that is not actually claimed in either the marketing literature or in the warranty.

Slide 4 - Benefits according to Consumers

Of course, most people looking at advertising and marketing material end up with an impression, and link that with a set of assumptions, giving a perception of the product that may be much more favorable than the product deserves.  If this is a product presentation by a salesman/woman, then by now the process has become entertainment, with suspension of disbelief, and willingness to dream being part of the mix.  Salespeople love it when it comes to this – because people work hard to make their dreams come through, and why let a few inconvenient facts get in the way?

Slide 5 - Reality

In the end, you’re still getting only the actual benefits and weaknesses that the product inherently has.  As noted before, the knowledge, skill, and care of the installer go a long way towards minimizing the weaknesses, and maximizing the benefits.

How does this impact our decisions as far as selecting the products for our roofs?  Tune in for another post.

(c) 2014 Paul Grizenko

Question to my readers…

When I started this blog, I was hoping to have a conversation with people who had questions about a somewhat esoteric subject (roofing and related subjects) on which there is much misinformation.  Granted, it is not something that is top-of-mind for many, but when it becomes necessary to do something, time is usually not on your side, and there is a lot of pressure to get something done to avoid or prevent further damage.  However, the underlying processes of gradual deterioration have been occurring for a long time before the situation became acute.  The posts in this blog have several purposes:  to share knowledge and experience, to (hopefully) correct misinformation, to educate, and for those people in my service area, to help them resolve issues and concerns.

The question or questions that I put to you, my readers are as follows:

  • What issues about the roof systems do you find confusing?
  • What kind of things would you want to read about more on this blog?
  • What kind of information are you seeking that you’re not finding?
  • What were you looking for when you came across this blog?  Did the information found here help you?
  • What issues would you like to see addressed?

Please note that I will not  make specific product  recommendations, because in general, most of the products on the market are excellent, as long as they are used as intended and are installed by experienced and conscientious workers.  On the other hand, all products are part of a system, and rely on other elements to work properly in order that they do their intended job.  Some systems are designed better than others, and a discussion of how the designs compare is probably within the scope of this blog.

Please use either the Contact Us form, or add your comments to any of the posts or articles that you find interesting.  I look forward to having a meaningful and mutually productive conversation!

What is condensation?

If you listen to some people, you’d think that “condensation” is the satanic miasma that descends upon the undeserving, punishing them for sins committed in prior lives (or capriciously,  for no reason whatsoever).  In the field of roofing, roofers will look upon an afflicted home and suggest various remedies, many of which are no better than burning chicken entrails under a full moon, or uttering incantations banishing the spirits from the crevices in which they took refuge.  It is also quite common for all kinds of building mischief to be blamed on “Condensation” hence informing the suitably-impressed home-owner that they are in the presence of a superior intelligence.


Continue reading

Planning for a new (re-) roof? A checklist of things to consider.

It’s winter, and you’re thinking about perhaps getting a new roof in spring.  Why?  Well, it could have been looking a bit worn and shabby in fall.  Perhaps you’re tired of living with the ice dams and icicles.  You could have been in the attic and noticed some condensation on the nails and wetness on the wood.  Or you may have been “stretching” it out as long as possible, and you’re getting afraid that this time it really won’t hold up any more.

So, let’s pick up the phone (or more likely, turn on the computer) and get three estimates.  That’s what we are usually told to do as a prudent way of getting a quote.  However, I will suggest to you that this approach is flawed, partly because it depends on the people doing the quoting actually caring about whether they will be doing the right thing for you (or not).  If you are lucky, you will get three knowledgeable, experienced and ethical contractors who will evaluate your situation, determine your needs, and tailor a solution appropriate to your situation.  Uh huh.  What do you think your chances are? 

What is somewhat more likely is that you’ll get a salesperson who needs to fill his or her quota.  They may (or may not) know their product, they may (usually not) know how the product is installed and they may (but almost certainly not) know what kind of things can go wrong.  Will they do a proper inspection?  Will they try to understand what is working (or not) in the current installation?  Will they pick an appropriate product for the situation or will they sell the product they have (whether it is appropriate or not)?  How will you know if the company will do the necessary preparatory work?  Unless you’ve done some homework ahead of time, you don’t.

Let’s review what you need to know.

The first step is to know what you have – that takes an inspection.  (see the blog post about inspections:  If you’re not sure of what you need to be looking at, the article “Components of a sloped roof system” ( may  help.  If you’re not comfortable doing such an inspection, you could consider hiring us (see the “Contact Us” form here:

The rest of the process is described in the article “How to get a good quote for your roof” ( located in the Pages/Articles/ section.

When it comes to choosing the contractors to give you the quotes, you want to use those who have the track record of good performance of work.  To find them, you could use the information in the article “How to choose a contractor in Quebec: (

If you go through the articles I referenced, you’ll find that there’s quite a bit of homework to be done before you choose the best quote.  And that’s the point – it may look like you’ve got lots of time to spring, but doing the homework takes time, and the good guys that you’ll want to hire are going to be fully booked by the time the season starts.  Better put this on your to-do list. 

(c) 2014 Paul Grizenko

Ventilation for roofs – why, what, when, where, how (instead of who)

Ventilation is like vitamins – everyone knows you need some, but often don’t know why.  This post discusses some aspects of ventilation that  homeowners should know about.


Ventilation is used to:

1)  reduce the heat build-up in the attic and

2)  reduce the moisture levels in the attic.

The first helps reduce the cooling requirement in summer, and reduces the snow melting (which can lead to ice dams) in winter.

The second helps in keeping the attic relatively dry and thus minimizes the possibility of condensation, which in turn reduces the support for rot and mold.  If the roof system suffers from persistent, if low-level leakage (as often happens with older roof coverings), this ventilation also helps dry out the leakage.


Ventilation is the movement of air through an enclosed space.  Ventilation can be passive (working on gravity and density only) or active (moved by a fan).  Active ventilation is usually NOT recommended for venting attics in cold environments due to the danger of pulling in moist air from the living space if the vapour barrier is not completely effective.

For passive ventilation to work, there needs to be an intake at a low point of the system (that’s the inlet for cold, dry air), an air channel through which the air can flow into the attic (where it picks up heat and moisture), and an outlet at the top of the structure (because warmed air is more buoyant than cold air, and rises to the top of the structure).  Since air has viscosity, the size of the openings determine the amount of resistance to the air flow.


Ventilation becomes particularly important in winter, when insufficient insulation often allows transfer of heat from the interior to the cold spaces.  If the vapour barrier is not very effective, there is also the danger of moisture from the living spaces to enter the cold areas and become condensation.  Good ventilation will help reduce both the amount of condensation, and the amount of heat transferred to the roof (where the heat can melt the snow and contribute to ice damming).


Ideally the intake ventilation is located along the lowest edges of the roof (which is where you will usually have the vented soffits), and the outlet ventilation is located at the top part of the roof, along the top ridge.  In between, you should have a minimum 2” air channel connecting the intake with the outflow.  The positioning of the intake and outlet vents is important to avoid the ventilation “short-circuit” which happens when multiple openings are present, and the air is drawn from the intake of least resistance, instead of the lowest ones.

Since many attics have limited space along the eaves for insulation, it is not uncommon to see insulation stuffed into the corners which ends up blocking the airflow from the soffits.  There are various products on the market designed to keep the airflow working.

The geometry of the roof, and the arrangement of interior space of the attic also affects the way the ventilation works.  Certain roof types and roof features are known to be problematic when it comes to ventilation, and require special measures to ensure correct function.


The ventilation product to be used depends on the roof type.  Simple pitched roofs are usually vented with soffit vents along the base of the roof.  Mansard roofs can have a more complicated requirement, and they usually use specialized vents to bring air into the upper portion of the mansard.  Outlet vents can be of various types, with gable vents, low-profile vents, turbines, ridge vents, and large vents like Maximums all having specific uses.

If venting is found to be necessary, but the existing structure doesn’t allow this, then it may be necessary to build a second deck with an air space between the old and new roofs.  Some metal roofs can be installed using the cross-bat system, which effectively accomplishes the same result.

It is very common for contractors selling “ventilation” to focus on the outflow vents and ignore the rest of the elements that make the ventilation effective.  In some circumstances, it is just not possible to arrange the correct ventilation, and other means need to be considered for achieving the two goals of ventilation.


There is a class of roof structures that do NOT need ventilation.  These are usually designed from the outset as sealed roof units where there is no need for ventilation as there is not movement of air into or out of the roof unit.  However, for these types of units, both the design and the execution of work need to be impeccable, to ensure that no moisture can enter the unit from either inside or outside.

Other stuff:

The ventilation should also be discussed together with vapour barriers, insulation, and the waterproofing on the outside of the decking.  They all interrelate in ways that need to be thought through if modifications to the system are being made.

Case Study:

This image shows mold growing on the underside of the plywood decking, despite the home having vented soffits and several large maximum outflow vents.

Example of mold buildup on decking due to leakage and poor ventilation
Example of mold buildup on decking due to leakage and poor ventilation

There were several issue with this house:

  • The insulation (fiberglass bats) were stuffed into the edges of the attic, blocking air flow from the soffits.
  • The insulation used in that area did not have enough resistance to heat to prevent loss of heat to the roof.
  • The consequent loss of heat caused large ice dams in winter.
  • The asphalt roof covering did not have enough Ice-and-water shield membrane along the eaves to prevent the water from the ice-dams to penetrate the roof covering to the wood.
  • There was not enough ventilation to dry out the moisture that was accumulating in the wood, supporting the growth of mold.
  • Due to the construction of the house and subsequent “improvements”, there was minimal space for adding either insulation or ventilation in affected areas.

There were several possible ways of ameliorating this situation.  They involved determining the areas where ventilation would just not be possible, and using certain techniques for preventing moisture buildup in those areas.  Other areas would have benefitted by using insulation with a much higher R-value per inch (given the limited space available), and by using certain products that would promote ventilation in tight areas.  A further improvement could have been made by using the appropriate water-proofing membrane in areas where the ice-damming could not be avoided.

(c) 2014 Paul Grizenko

Planned Obsolescence – Why doesn’t the stuff last?

Because, it’s not supposed to, silly.  We want our stuff to work until the novelty wears off, and then we want it to fail so that we can replace it without any guilt, for the next new thing.  This certainly applies to our electronic gadgets, much of our clothing, and even to our household furnishings and decorations.

So what’s wrong with wanting new stuff?  This approach is not limited to the small things, it can also be seen in our attitude to more expensive stuff, like cars, houses, and relationships.  We can accommodate this desire for novelty when the item is relatively cheap.  This desire, however, clashes with our desire for security (or risk-avoidance).  Cheap cars that broke down often and in fact were dangerous, have been replaced by cars that last longer, work better and are much safer.  People are now holding on to their cars an average of about 7 years, whereas in the past, this used to be as short as two years.

When it comes to homes, the older pattern of staying in the house for 20-30 years, has changed so that people now change their homes on the average once every 7-8 years.  Part of that appears to be due to increased workplace mobility, part of it is due to trading up, but there is also the aspect that people are using their home equity to finance their lifestyles and entertainment (as can be seen in the dramatic rise in home-equity loans and lines of credit).

This shortened time of residence has in encouraged people to think less of “long-term investment” in their property, and more about saleability (curb-side appeal, selling points like kitchens and bathrooms).  On the flip side, the amount of effort spent on ensuring the asset’s long-term value (ie, maintenance and upgrading of the fundamentals), has decreased, so that when things do start going wrong, they require much more effort to fix.  That in turn, prompts some people to sell, to avoid having to invest in major repairs, and leaving the expense to be new buyers.

Of course, the new buyers did not know the history of the home, and probably did not know what the true underlying state of the property actually is.  Home inspections go only so far in ferreting out the hidden defects.  This is one of the factors that prompted the Quebec government to institute a 10-year “hidden defect” law, allowing the new owners to sue the previous owners if a hidden defect (ie, a defect not disclosed in the sales documents) is found within 10 years of sale.  (check the links under the Links tab on the main menu).

Hidden defects can arise in a number of ways.  For instance, necessary regular maintenance may have been skipped, leading to a deterioration in the structure.  Alternatively, various changes and “improvements” may have been made without taking into account the way the house system does or should work, resulting in a defective operation of the system.  In other cases, hidden defects arise from the pattern of short-cuts taken by homeowners (and the contractors they hired) in carrying out essential work.

Returning to the starting theme of this post, a source of “hidden defects” is the performance of the roofing materials that are commonly installed.  Based on marketing and other influencers, homeowners often expect a product that is sold with a multi-year warranty to last the length of the warranty.  For example, many people believe that roofing shingles covered by a 30-year warranty will actually last 30 years.  There are other products that are sold with 50-year or “life-time” warranties, with the implication that once installed, this will be the last roof that the home will need.  (for links to the warranties of popular shingles sold in Quebec, check the links under the Links tab on the main menu).

The reality is somewhat different.  For various reasons, it is common to see roofs needing replacement in as little as 10-12 years.  It is certainly uncommon (in our experience) to see a roof made from asphalt shingles that has lasted more than 18 years.  Other materials are also not immune from premature need for replacement.  In the case of metal roofs, the primary material is usually long-lasting, but the failure comes from the lack of attention to key details during the installation.

Since homeowners are usually not expecting premature failure, they often fail to carry out routine annual inspections that would reveal the performance (or lack of) the materials installed.  This results in deterioration that is “hidden” in the underlying structure.  The primary “effect” of deterioration we need to be concerned about is the infiltration of water into the interior of the roof.  This contributes to rot, delamination of plies (if covering is plywood), disintegration of the material (if non-exterior OSB), as well as support for mold.

In addition to the materials not lasting as long as the buyers expect, another aspect to reducing the longevity of roofing installations are the typical short-cuts that are taken to keep the price of the roof “affordable”.  It takes time to do a proper roof preparation, and to build in all the little details that ensure a long-lasting roof assembly.  Of course, the preparation and the details are not visible when the final covering goes on, so it’s hard to verify after-the-fact whether there were short-cuts taken.  Given how many roofing contracts are written, there usually is no mention of these preparations or details, and what IS written is related mostly to the visible exterior part.

So whether it is intentional or not, the end result is that our roofs, for the most part, are going to fail much before we expect them to.  Because these failures occur over time, for the most part, they are not perceived as urgent.  These failures undermine the value of our most important investment, our home, and also incur ongoing liabilities in the event that we choose to sell.  They diminish our security and well-being, increase our operating costs and can potentially undermine our health.  It doesn’t have to be this way.

To make informed decisions, it takes knowledge of how things actually work, and experience to project what the consequences will be of the decisions taken.  Protecting yourself by obtaining the facts about your actual situation is the first step.  Identifying the issues, whether actual or potential, and prioritizing them, is the second step.  Finding a company that has the knowledge, experience, and track record to do the right things in correcting the issues identified, is the third step. Choosing the appropriate materials installation process and determining an appropriate budget is the fourth step. Monitoring the performance of the work to ensure that no short-cuts are taken, is the fifth step.  And of course, once the remediation work is completed, following up with annual inspection and doing the required maintenance is the final step of ensuring you get the maximum use of your investment.

We can help with each of the six steps identified above.  This help isn’t “free” (we charge for our consultations), but given the potential consequences of not knowing, it’s an investment in making good decisions.  If you are interested in ensuring that you know the facts, use the contact form to contact us and set up an appointment.

© 2014 Paul Grizenko